In Depth Guide

Compostable Materials: An In Depth Guide

Table of Contents



In this in-depth guide, we will explore the fascinating topic of compostable materials. Composting is a natural process that transforms organic waste into nutrient-rich soil. Compostable materials are environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional plastics and other non-biodegradable products. Let’s delve into the world of compostable materials and understand their importance in creating a sustainable future.

Types of Compostable Materials

  • Food Scraps: Fruit and vegetable peels, coffee grounds, and leftover food can be composted, providing valuable nutrients to the soil.
  • Yard Waste: Leaves, grass clippings, branches, and other green waste are excellent compostable materials that contribute to healthy soil.
  • Paper and Cardboard: Uncoated paper, cardboard, and paper products like napkins and coffee filters can be composted, reducing paper waste in landfills.
  • Wood: Untreated wood chips, sawdust, and twigs can break down naturally and enhance soil fertility.
  • Natural Fibers: Materials like cotton, hemp, and jute are compostable alternatives to synthetic fibers.

Benefits of Compostable Materials

  • Reduction of Waste: Composting diverts organic waste from landfills, minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and reducing the strain on landfill capacity.
  • Sustainable Agriculture: Compost improves soil structure, promotes nutrient retention, and reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers, leading to healthier and more sustainable agricultural practices.
  • Plastic Alternatives: Compostable materials provide eco-friendly alternatives to conventional plastics, reducing the reliance on non-biodegradable materials that contribute to plastic pollution.
  • Economic Savings: Composting reduces the need for chemical fertilizers and promotes healthier plant growth, ultimately resulting in cost savings for farmers and gardeners.
  • Closed Nutrient Cycle: Composting completes the circle of life by returning organic matter back to the soil, creating a sustainable and closed-loop system.

Composting Techniques

  • Backyard Composting: This method involves creating a compost pile or using a compost bin in your backyard to break down organic waste through microorganisms and natural decomposition processes.
  • Indoor Composting: Suitable for smaller living spaces, indoor composting utilizes worms (vermicomposting) or specialized containers to compost kitchen scraps and other organic waste.
  • Commercial Composting: Larger-scale composting facilities employ techniques such as windrow composting or aerated static pile composting to process organic waste, including compostable materials from municipalities and businesses.
  • Bokashi Composting: This anaerobic fermentation process involves the use of beneficial microorganisms to break down food waste quickly.
  • Compost Tea: An organic fertilizer, compost tea is created by steeping compost in water and extracting nutrients, which can then be used to nourish plants.

Compostable Materials Certification

  • BPI Certification: The Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) certifies compostable materials based on specific criteria, ensuring that they will break down in industrial composting facilities within a specified timeframe.
  • EN 13432 Standard: This European standard establishes the requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation. Materials meeting this standard are deemed compostable.
  • ASTM D6400: This American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard defines the requirements for compostable plastics that can undergo industrial composting.
  • Seedling Logo: The Seedling logo, recognized in Europe, indicates that the product has successfully met the criteria under European standards for compostable materials.
  • Check Local Regulations: It is important to check local regulations and requirements regarding compostable materials, as certification standards and facility availability may vary.

Industrial Composting Process

  • Feedstock Preparation: Compostable materials are sorted, shredded or ground, and mixed to create an ideal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio for the composting process.
  • Composting Piles: The prepared feedstock is then formed into windrows or placed in large piles, providing the optimal conditions for microbial activity and decomposition.
  • Aeration and Moisture: Proper ventilation and moisture content are maintained to support aerobic conditions necessary for the breakdown of organic matter.
  • Temperature Monitoring: Composting piles are regularly monitored for temperature, as microbial activity generates heat. Temperatures must reach a certain level to ensure successful decomposition.
  • Curing and Screening: Once the composting process is complete, curing takes place to stabilize the compost. The final product is then screened to remove any remaining contaminants.

Composting Myths Debunked

  • Compost Attracts Pests: Properly managed compost piles do not attract pests. Using lids or covers and avoiding adding certain materials can prevent unwanted critters.
  • Composting Takes Too Much Time: With the right techniques and equipment, composting can be a relatively low-maintenance process. Regular maintenance ensures efficient decomposition.
  • Compost Smells Bad: Foul odors indicate improper composting methods. Aerating the pile and managing the moisture level help prevent unpleasant smells.
  • Composting Is Difficult in Cold Climates: Composting can be done year-round, even in colder climates. Insulating the compost pile and using heat-generating techniques can maintain decomposition during colder seasons.
  • Only Experts Can Compost: Composting is accessible to everyone. Basic knowledge, proper techniques, and a little patience are all that’s needed to succeed.


Compostable materials offer an eco-friendly alternative to conventional products, reducing waste, promoting sustainable agriculture, and closing the nutrient cycle. By understanding the types, benefits, and composting techniques associated with these materials, we can actively contribute to a greener future. Embracing compostable materials and proper composting methods empowers individuals and communities to make an environmentally responsible choice.


  • The Spruce:
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency:
  • Biodegradable Products Institute:
  • European Bioplastics:
  • U.S. Composting Council: